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The universe deals with space and time and its contents which include planets, moons, dwarf planets, stars, galaxies, contents of intergalactic space and all of matter and energy. We came across the term universe for sure but we still don’t know its original size. Scientists at the beginning thought that earth was at the center of the universe. But later Nicolaus Copernicus developed a model called as a heliocentric model with the sun at the center and other planets revolving around it. Further observational improvements led to the realization that our solar system is located in the Milky Way galaxy which is one of the many galaxies present in the universe. It is the assumption that galaxies are distributed uniformly and all in the same direction which means the universe has neither an edge nor a center. In early 20th century, it was discovered that universe is expanding at an increasing rate. Now what’s more peculiar is that majority of the mass in the universe exists in an unknown form called dark matter.
Now one may ask the question how the universe was formed. The answer to this question is given by Big Bang theory which is the only prevailing theory that mankind accepts. The theory states that time and space emerged together some 13 billion years ago with a fixed amount of energy and matter that became less dense with time as the universe expanded. After the initial expansion, everything cooled that allowed first subatomic particles to form and then simple atoms. Giant clouds later merged to form galaxies, stars, and much more which are visible to our eyes.
Another question may arise what’s there after universe? Well, astronomers think that space is a never ending sequence of stars, galaxies, planets and much more distributed pretty much the same as it is in the observable universe. If it is, that has seriously some weird implications for what lies there beyond it then astronomers are of the view that beyond Hubble Volume anyone won’t find just more, different planets. Now the term Hubble volume might sound unfamiliar to you. It is nothing but the spherical region of the universe surrounding an observer beyond which objects recede from the observer at a rate greater than the speed of light and it is happening due to the expansion of the universe.
So in the light of this context “What’s there after universe?” shall be the epicenter of discussion.
Physicists for many years studied the nature of the universe. Many of them go a step further, contemplating what lies beyond the boundaries of the universe. Is there any possibility of anything that exists beyond it. Now there are five theories about what that “something” might be.
The outside the universe question might be tricky as you have to define the universe first. Then there lies the common answer that is to say “observable universe” which is defined by the speed of light. Now reflection of light from an object is the reason due to which we are able to trace objects the same concept applies here that is to say light emitted by heavenly bodies reaches to us and we observe them, but we can never see farther than the farthest distance light can travel in the time universe has existed. It suggests that observable universe keeps getting bigger, but irrespective of expansion it is finite – the amount is sometimes referred to as Hubble Volume which is already stated in the earlier paragraph. So from Hubble volume, we came to know that we’ll never be able to see beyond that boundary, it’s only the universe that we’ll ever interact with.
Beyond The Hubble Volume
Everyone believes with some certainty that there’s “more universe” out there beyond Hubble Volume. Astronomers consider space as infinite filled with many other galaxies, stars, planets etc. Now Hubble volume theory puts you with the idea that there’s nothing beyond but scientists found out that if anyone goes far enough then we’ll meet with another solar system where there’s an Earth identical in every way the planets exists. It means we’ll find another Hubble volume that’s perfectly identical to ours. When we come in front of the mirror then we see ourselves the same applies over here that’s to say there’s another version of space mirroring us 10 to 10^188 meters away. It might seem unlikely but this is what we are provided with by the scientists.
Right from very beginning mankind invented and discovered many things and even today the research is still going on. In the year 2008 astronomers discovered strange galactic clusters that were all streaming in the same direction at a gigantic speed of two million miles per hour. After that many observations in 2010 confirmed this phenomenon which we call it as dark flow. Movement of dark flow defies all predictions about the distribution of the mass of the universe. One such reason behind this might be the massive structures outside Hubble Volume exerting gravitational influence. This means a structure of universe beyond our view is non-uniform. The structures might be anything starting from aggregations of matter and energy to bizarre warps that funnels gravitational forces from other universes.
We again came to the point of Hubble volume but it’s a cheat as because it’s still the same universe, just a part of it that we can’t see. Like our universe, it would still have same physical laws and constants. Now we come to the story big bang. The post big bang period the expansion of the universe that created “bubbles” in the structure of space. Now, what’s bubble you might ask? It’s nothing but an area that stopped stretching along with the rest of space and formed it’s own universe, with its own laws. So based on this scenario we can say that space is definitely infinite and each bubble is also infinite as per observations and calculations. Even if anyone breaches the boundary of a bubble, the space in between bubbles is still expanding as the universe is expanding. So we’d never reach to the next bubble no matter how fast we are and how fast we travel.
Black Hole Spawning
Lee Smolin, a physicist put forward a theory that suggests that every black hole in our universe causes the formation of the new one with each universe having slightly different laws than the forerunner universe. In this way, Smolin went on suggesting the natural selection of universes, as laws that lead to the frequent formation of black holes that again lead to the creation of many new universes, while non – black hole forming universes “die out”. But unfortunately, this theory is discouraged by many people including the proposed itself.
Many Parallel Universes
If anyone searches on the Internet about parallel universes then he/she might end up finding tons of theories related to it. Out of a bundle, we select the best one the same applies here with the best-accepted one these days involves an evolution of ideas of string theory to involve membranes that vibrate in other dimensions. But it’s beyond the purpose of this article to get accustomed with the details of string or membrane theory, but the main concept is that these rippling membranes in 11th dimension are whole other universes, and slamming of these ripples with each other leads to the formation of the new universe. The observed distribution of matter in our universe can be explained with the effects of rippling motion. Actually, to this point, we didn’t come across the most important point which states that gravity we experience in our universe is nothing but the gravity that leaks into Milky Way from another universe in another dimension. This explains why gravity here seems so weak compared to other fundamental forces.
So after discussing lots of many new things we need to conclude. No one’s sure about what lies beyond it but we can theorize. Some speculate that there might be a “super” universe. Hundreds of billions of light years from us could be islands of universes much like our own. So why can’t we see them? They are so far away that by the time light reaches us, it may have lost so much of energy that we cannot detect it, or our universe may end by the time it reaches us. Another theory is that we might be creating space as our universe expands. Beyond expansion lies a higher dimensional space-time universe which we are unfolding into. Since it is the higher dimension, we cannot see, detect it, or comprehend it. Yet another hypothesis is that we are stuck inside a black hole of a larger universe outside of it. Lots of theories are coming up but none is solid. Our view is small and the universe is vast that’s for sure, so we can only imagine what’s there. We may not be able to see the effects on a large scale and theorize what’s causing it.